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Machining Characteristics and Application of CNC Machine Tools

Article source:CNC machiningResponsible editor:adminauthor:Kangding MetalPopularity: Publication time:2019-09-21 10:44 font size:【 large middle Small
CNC machine tools have been increasingly used in modern manufacturing, and have taken advantage of the unmatched ordinary machine tools. CNC machine tools mainly have the following characteristics:
1. The drive chain is short. Compared with ordinary machine tools, the spindle drive is no longer the motor-belt-gear mechanism shifting. Instead, the horizontal and vertical feeds are respectively driven by two servo motors, and the conventional components such as the hanging wheel and the clutch are no longer used, and the transmission chain is greatly shortened.

2. High rigidity, in order to match the high precision of the CNC system, the rigidity of the CNC machine tool is high, in order to meet the high precision machining requirements.

3. Lightly drag, the knife holder (workbench) moves with the ball screw pair, the friction is small, and the movement is light. Supporting special bearings at both ends of the lead screw have a larger pressure angle than ordinary bearings and are optional at the factory; The lubrication part of the CNC machine tool is automatically lubricated with oil mist, and these measures make the CNC machine tool move lightly.

Machining Characteristics of CNC Machine Tools
1. High degree of automation can reduce the operator's physical labor intensity. The CNC machining process is done automatically according to the input program. The operator only needs to start the tool setting, loading and unloading the workpiece, and changing the tool. During the machining process, the machine is mainly observed and supervised. However, due to the high technical content of CNC machine tools, the operator's mental work is correspondingly improved.

2. The processed parts have high precision and stable quality. The positioning accuracy and repeat positioning accuracy of CNC machine tools are very high, and it is easier to ensure the consistency of batch parts. As long as the process design and procedures are correct and reasonable, combined with careful operation, the parts can be guaranteed to have higher machining accuracy and quality control of the machining process.

3. High production efficiency. CNC machine tool machining is capable of machining multiple machined surfaces in one setup, generally only detecting the first part. Therefore, it is possible to reduce intermediate processes such as scribing, dimension inspection, etc., compared to conventional machine tools. The auxiliary time is reduced, and the quality of the parts processed by the numerical control is stable, which brings convenience to the subsequent processes, and the overall efficiency is obviously improved.

4. Facilitate the development and modification of new products. CNC machining generally does not require a lot of complicated process equipment. By programming the machining program, parts with complex shapes and high precision requirements can be processed. When the product is modified and the design is changed, the program is changed without redesigning the tooling. Therefore, CNC machining can greatly shorten the product development cycle, providing a shortcut for the research and development of new products, product improvement and modification.

5. Can be developed to more advanced manufacturing systems. CNC machine tools and their processing technology are the basis of computer-aided manufacturing.


6. The initial investment is large. This is due to the high cost of CNC machine tools, the long processing preparation cycle, and high maintenance costs.

7. Maintenance requirements are high. CNC machine tools are typical equipment for technology-intensive mechatronics. Maintenance personnel need to understand both mechanical and microelectronics maintenance knowledge, as well as better maintenance equipment.

 
Parts suitable for CNC machine tools
1. Most suitable for a variety of small and medium batch parts. With the gradual decline in the manufacturing cost of CNC machine tools, the processing of large quantities of parts has now appeared, both domestically and abroad. When processing small batches and single-piece production, it is also possible to shorten the commissioning time of the program and the preparation time of the fixture.

2. Parts with high precision requirements. The CNC machine tool has good rigidity, high manufacturing precision, accurate tool setting, and convenient size compensation, so it can process parts with high dimensional accuracy.


3. A part with a small surface roughness value. When the material of the workpiece and the tool, the finishing allowance and the tool angle are constant, the surface roughness depends on the cutting speed and the feed rate. Ordinary machine tools are constant speeds, and different cutting speeds vary in diameter. Like the CNC lathe with constant line speed cutting function, the same line speed can be used for the end face and the outer diameter of different diameters to ensure that the surface roughness value is small and consistent. When processing surfaces with different surface roughness, a small feed rate is used for a surface with a small roughness, and a larger feed rate is used for a surface having a large roughness, and the variability is good, which is difficult to achieve in an ordinary machine tool.

4. Parts with complex contours. Any plane curve can be approximated by a straight line or an arc. The CNC machine has a circular interpolation function that can process a variety of complex contoured parts.
 
Management use of CNC machine tools
The use of CNC machine tools requires the careful use of the operator. It must rely on scientific management, a sound management system and a scientific production model are effective means to improve production efficiency.
1. Establish and improve a sound management system, effectively control and supervise the work of CNC machine tool related personnel, so that the whole process of operation and operation of the machine tool is controlled.

2. Strengthen the training of technical personnel and technical workers management personnel. The training of CNC machining is a long-term work and a process of continuous improvement. By training the craftsman, you can compile a more simplified CNC machining process, simplify the procedure, and shorten the processing time; Skilled workers can improve operational skills; Managers can better understand the characteristics of CNC equipment, process control, and implement management with modern production management concepts.


3. Scientific organization of production. Improve the stoppage of work and unbalanced production capacity, improve the operating rate of CNC machine tools, rationally arrange production beats, and rationally allocate production tasks. By using the similarity of the parts processing, the parts to be processed are classified, so as to be reasonably arranged in the process preparation, production planning and scheduling, and the balance of the production capacity of the equipment is improved. Scientific production batches will greatly reduce the ratio of machine adjustment time and tooling preparation time, which can improve batch efficiency.

4. In order to play the value of CNC machine tools, operators must correctly master the operating principles of CNC machine tools. Operate the machine correctly according to the machine operation rules; Process parts according to process and program requirements; Coordinate parts, tools, pressure plates and other dimensions before machining to avoid interference and collision; Improve technical quality and reduce non-processing time such as loading and aligning; Proper maintenance of various accessories ensures accurate accuracy.

Machining Characteristics of CNC Machine Tools

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