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The main function of CNC milling machine

Article source:未知Responsible editor:adminauthor:adminPopularity: Publication time:2019-09-22 18:15 font size:【 large middle Small
A milling machine is a machine that mills a workpiece with a milling cutter. In addition to milling planes, grooves, gears, threads and spline shafts, milling machines can also process more complex profiles with higher efficiency than planers and are widely used in the mechanical manufacturing and repair departments. The earliest milling machine was a horizontal milling machine created by American Whitney in 1818; In order to mill the spiral groove of the twist drill, American Brown created the first universal milling machine in 1862, which is the prototype of the elevator milling machine; The portal milling machine appeared around 1884; Semi-automatic milling machine appeared in the 1920s. The worktable can accomplish the automatic conversion of "feed - speed guide rail" or "speed - speed guide rail-feed" by using block. After 1950, milling machines developed rapidly in control systems, and the application of digital control greatly improved the automation of milling machines. Especially after the 1970s, the digital control system and automatic tool change system of the microprocessor were applied on the milling machine, which expanded the processing range of the milling machine and improved the machining accuracy and efficiency.

There are many types of milling machines, which are generally distinguished by layout and scope. The main ones are lifting table milling machines, portal milling machines, single-column milling machines and single-arm milling machines, instrument milling machines, tool milling machines and so on.

Elevator milling machines are available in versatile, horizontal and vertical styles. Mainly used for processing small and medium-sized parts, the most widely used; Gantry milling machines include gantry milling and boring machines, gantry milling machines and double-column milling machines, all of which are used to machine large parts; The horizontal milling head of the single-column milling machine can be moved along the column guide rail, and the table is fed longitudinally; The vertical milling head of a single-arm milling machine can be moved horizontally along the cantilever rail, and the cantilever can also be adjusted along the column rail. Single-column milling machines and single-arm milling machines are used to machine large parts.


Instrument milling machine is a small lifting table milling machine for processing instrumentation and other small parts; Tool milling machines are mainly used in the manufacture of molds and tools. They are equipped with a variety of accessories such as vertical milling heads, universal angle tables and plugs, as well as drilling, boring and inserting. Other milling machines include keyway milling machines, cam milling machines, crankshaft milling machines, roll journal milling machines and square ingot milling machines, all of which are dedicated milling machines for the machining of corresponding workpieces.

In addition, according to the control mode, the milling machine can be divided into copy milling machine, program control milling machine and CNC milling machine.

CNC milling machine is a CNC machine tool with strong processing function. At present, the rapidly developing machining centers and flexible machining units are produced on the basis of CNC milling machines and CNC boring machines. Both are inseparable from milling. Since the CNC milling process is the most complex, the technical problems that need to be solved are also the most. Therefore, when researching and developing software systems for CNC systems and automatic programming languages, milling has always been the focus.


I. Classification of CNC milling machines
1. Sort by spindle position

1) CNC vertical milling machine
CNC vertical milling machines have always occupied the majority of CNC milling machines in number and have the widest range of applications. From the point of view of the number of coordinates of the CNC control of the machine tool, the current 3-axis CNC vertical milling still accounts for the majority; Generally, 3 coordinate processing can be performed, but some machines can only perform coordinate processing of any two of the three coordinates (often referred to as 2.5 coordinate processing). In addition, there are four-coordinate and 5-coordinate NC vertical milling of the machine tool spindle for one or two axes of the X, Y, and Z axes.

2) Horizontal CNC milling machine
As with a general horizontal milling machine, the spindle axis is parallel to the horizontal plane. In order to expand the processing range and expansion functions, horizontal CNC milling machines usually use the addition of CNC rotary table or universal CNC turntable to achieve 4, 5 coordinate processing. In this way, not only the continuous swivel profile on the side of the workpiece can be machined, but also in a single installation, the station can be changed by the turntable to perform "four-sided machining".

3) Vertical and horizontal CNC milling machine
At present, such CNC milling machines are rare. Since the spindle direction of such a milling machine can be changed, it is possible to perform both vertical machining and horizontal machining on one machine. At the same time, with the functions of the above two types of machine tools, the use range is wider, the functions are more complete, the room for selecting the processing object is larger, and the user is provided with a lot of convenience. Especially when the production volume is small, the variety is large, and it needs to be processed in both vertical and horizontal ways, the user only needs to buy one such machine tool.

2. CNC milling machines are classified by structure
1) Workbench lifting CNC milling machine

This type of CNC milling machine uses a table to move, lift, and the spindle does not move. Small CNC milling machines generally use this method.

2) Spindle head lifting CNC milling machine
This type of CNC milling machine uses the table to move longitudinally and laterally, and the spindle moves along the vertical slide; The spindle head lifting type CNC milling machine has many advantages in terms of precision maintenance, load weight, system composition, etc., and has become the mainstream of CNC milling machines.

3) Gantry CNC milling machine
This type of CNC milling machine spindle can move on the horizontal and vertical slides of the gantry, while the gantry moves longitudinally along the bed. Large-scale CNC milling machines often adopt gantry mobile type because of the technical problems of expanding the stroke and reducing the floor space and rigidity.

Tooling fixture for milling machine
1. basic requirements

Very complicated fixtures are generally not required in CNC milling. Only simple positioning and clamping are required. The design principle is the same as that of the universal milling machine fixture. Combined with the characteristics of CNC milling, some basic requirements are put forward here:
In order to ensure that all the surfaces to be processed that need to be completed in the process are fully exposed, the fixture should be as open as possible. Because the clamping mechanism component and the processing surface should maintain a certain safety distance, and the clamping mechanism component can be low and low, to prevent the fixture and the milling machine spindle sleeve or the knife sleeve and the cutting tool from interfering during processing.
In order to maintain the consistency of the mounting orientation of the part with the machine coordinate system and the programmed coordinate system. The fixture shall ensure that the directional installation is carried out on the machine tool, and it is also required to maintain a certain coordinate relationship between the positioning surface of the part and the machine tool.


The rigidity and stability of the fixture are better. Try not to use a design that replaces the clamping point during machining. When it is necessary to change the clamping point during the machining process, special care must be taken not to replace the positioning accuracy of the clamp or workpiece due to the replacement of the clamping point.

2. Types of common fixtures
The fixtures commonly used in CNC milling are roughly the following:
Universal combination fixture. It is suitable for milling small and medium-sized workpieces in small batch production or development on CNC milling machines.
Special milling fixtures. This is a fixture designed and manufactured especially for a certain item or similar workpieces, which is generally used when the annual output is large or when it is developed. Its structure is fixed and used only for the specific process of a specific part. This type of fixture design should be simplified to minimize manufacturing time.
Multi-station fixture. Multiple workpieces can be mounted at the same time, reducing the number of tool changes. It is easy to process one side and load and unload workpieces on one side, which is beneficial to shorten the auxiliary time and increase the productivity, which is more suitable for medium-volume production.


Pneumatic or hydraulic clamp: Suitable for large-volume production occasions, using other fixtures and particularly time-consuming and laborious workpieces. It can reduce the labor intensity and increase productivity of workers, but the structure of such fixtures is complicated, the cost is often high, and the manufacturing cycle is long.
General milling fixture: There are universal adjustable clamps, vise, indexing head and three-jaw chuck.

3. Selection principle of CNC milling machine fixture
When selecting a fixture, it is usually necessary to consider the production volume, production efficiency, quality assurance and economy of the product. The following principles can be used when selecting:
In the case of small production or development, the universal combination fixture should be widely used, and only when the combination fixture cannot solve the problem, other fixtures are considered.
Special fixtures may be considered for small batch or batch production, but they should be as simple as possible.
Multi-station clamps and pneumatic and hydraulic clamps can be considered in production batches.

The main function of CNC milling machine

Although the numerical control systems of various types of CNC milling machines are different, the functions of various numerical control systems are basically the same except for some special functions.
       1, point control function
       This function enables hole system processing that requires high positional accuracy.
       2, continuous contour control function
       This function can realize the interpolation function of straight lines and circular arcs and the processing of non-circular curves.
       3, tool radius compensation function
       This function can be programmed according to the dimension of the part pattern, regardless of the actual radius size of the tool used, thus reducing the complex numerical calculations during programming.
       4, tool length compensation function
       This function automatically compensates for the length of the tool to accommodate the tool length adjustment during machining.
       5, the ratio and mirror processing function

The proportional function can be executed by changing the programmed machining program to a specified scale. Mirror processing is also called axisymmetric processing. If the shape of a part is symmetrical about the axis, then only one or two quadrant programs are programmed, and the contours of the remaining quadrants can be achieved by mirroring.
        6, rotation function
       This function performs the rotation of the programmed machining program at any angle within the machining plane.
       7, subroutine call function
       Some parts need to be repeatedly machined to the same contour shape at different locations. By processing the contour shape of the machining program as a subroutine and repeating the call at the required position, the machining of the part can be completed.
       8, macro program function
       This function can use a total instruction to represent a series of instructions that implement a function, and can operate on variables to make the program more flexible and convenient.

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