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Finishing Machining and Tool Design of Titanium Alloy parts

Article source:CNC machiningResponsible editor:adminauthor:Kangding MetalPopularity: Publication time:2019-09-07 17:21 font size:【 large middle Small
The elastic modulus of titanium alloy is small, for example, the elastic modulus E of TC4 is 110 GPa, which is about half of that of steel. Therefore, the large elastic deformation of the workpiece caused by cutting force will reduce the accuracy of the workpiece, so the rigidity of the processing system should be improved. The workpiece must be firmly clamped, and the tool moment to the support point of the workpiece must be minimized. Tools must be sharp, otherwise vibration and friction will occur, which will shorten the tool life and reduce the accuracy of the workpiece.

Finishing Machining Titanium Alloy parts

When cutting titanium alloys, only in the range of cutting speed of 1-5 mm/min can chip tumors form. Therefore, in general production conditions, when cutting titanium alloys, there will be no chip tumors. The friction coefficient between workpiece and cutting tool is not very large, and good surface quality can be easily obtained. The use of cooling lubricants is ineffective in improving the surface micro-geometry of titanium alloys. The low roughness of machined surface in cutting titanium alloy is due to the absence of chip tumors on the tool.

However, in order to improve the cutting conditions, reduce the cutting temperature and improve the tool life, and to eliminate the danger of fire, it is necessary to use a large number of soluble coolants in processing.
In order to avoid this danger, we should use a large amount of coolant and remove chips from machine tools in time. Equipped with fire extinguishing equipment; Replace blunt cutters in time. Sparks are easily caused by surface contamination of workpieces. Cutting speed must be reduced at this time. Thicker chips are less likely to spark than thinner chips. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the feed rate and the feed rate so that the temperature will not rise as rapidly as the cutting speed.

Selection criteria of cutting parameters for processing titanium alloys:

 From the point of view of reducing cutting temperature, lower cutting speed and larger feed rate should be adopted. Because of the high cutting temperature, the titanium alloy absorbs oxygen and hydrogen from the atmosphere, which makes the surface of the workpiece hard and brittle, and makes the tool wear severely. Therefore, in the process of processing, it is necessary to keep the knife tip temperature at an appropriate temperature to avoid excessive temperature.

When turning hard-skinned titanium alloy workpieces with YG8 turning tool under intermittent cutting conditions, the recommended cutting parameters are as follows: V = 15-28m/min, f = 0.25-0.35mm/r, AP = 1-3mm.
When finishing titanium alloy workpiece with YG3 turning tool under continuous cutting conditions, the recommended cutting parameters are as follows: V = 50 ~ 70m / min, f = 0.1 ~ 0.2mm / r, AP = 0.3 ~ 1mm. Table 2 shows the cutting parameters available for turning titanium alloys.

Cutting parameters in turning titanium alloy
Procedure Properties - Titanium Alloy Material - Hardness - Cutting Allowance (mm) - Cutting Speed (mm/min) - Tool Feed
Rough turning - TA1 ~ 7, TC1 ~ 2 - Soft - >.
Rough turning-TA8, TC3~8-medium->
Rough turning - TC9 ~ 10, TB1 ~ 2 - Hard - >.
Finish Turning-TA1~7, TC1~2-Soft
Finish Turning-TA8, TC3-8-in
Finish Turning - TC9~10, TB1~2 - Hard

When turning TC4 with YG6X turning tool (hardness is HB320-360) and ap=1mm and f=0.1mm/r, the optimum cutting speed is 60mm/min. On the basis of this, the cutting speed under different tool feeds and cutting depths is shown in Table 3.

Cutting Speed of Turning Titanium Alloy TC4

Typical turning tools for machining titanium alloys have the following characteristics: The blade material is YG6X, YG10HT; The rake angle is small, generally γ0=4°~6°, which enhances the strength of the cutter head; There is a negative chamfer of f=0.05~0.1mm to enhance the strength of the blade; The back angle is large, generally α0=14°~16°, to reduce the friction behind and improve the durability of the tool; Generally, it is not allowed to grind sharp corners or transition edges, and the rounded corners of the grinding edge are r=0.5mm, and the rough turning can reach r=1~2mm to enhance the strength of the cutting edge; When turning or turning thin-walled parts, the main deflection angle of the tool is large, generally 75°~90°.
Cutting amount:
Rough turning: v=40~50m/min, f=0.2~0.3mm/r, ap=3~5mm.
Semi-finishing turning: v=40~45m/min, f=0.2~0.3mm/r, ap=1~2mm.
Fine turning: v=50~55m/min, f=0.1~0.15mm/r, ap=0.2~0.5mm.

Cooling with emulsions can effectively improve tool durability. The high wear resistance and hardness of the cutter head under the premise of ensuring the strength of the cutter head is the key to the rational processing of titanium alloy. Therefore, the YG6X blade should be polished with diamond or SiC whetstone backing (back chamfering) to eliminate the sharpening of the kerf and enhance the strength of the blade.

The typical turning tool can reasonably solve the problem that the material activity increases with the increase of temperature and the thermal conductivity is poor when processing titanium alloy, so the tool durability is greatly improved.

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